Use of Open Standard based tools and technologies for the development of websites, software as well as content are very important to interoperability and accessibility of websites. World wide web consortium (W3C) is an International body working towards defining standards in web technologies and formats for publishing content on the web.

With respect to markup languages Indian Government websites should comply with W3C standards. Most of the browsers, softwares, companies/communities, also try to comply with W3C standards. Some of the commonly required standards are listed below:

7.1 Markup Languages

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is at the core of the foundation of World Wide Web. Language has undergone a number of revisions to enable it to be more powerful. HTML 4.01 version established it as a structural document markup language and is oriented towards the use of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). The latest standard in HTML is version 5.0. XML (Extensible Markup Language) is the means to extend HTML further and make it more generic. XSL (eXtensible Stylesheet Language) is the preferred style sheet language of XML. XHTML 1.0 is an XML based markup language and gives a new dimension to markup languages.

Indian Government websites/web documents/pages/forms should validate to following published grammars:

  • HTML 5.0
  • XHTML 1.0
  • XML 1.0

Web pages should be tested for compliance with validation tools such as W3C markup validator. For further details on the above markup languages, visit the website of W3C at