6.8 Navigation

Consistent navigation makes it easy to use a website since a visitor does not need to understand or remember different navigation styles for different sections. Therefore to promote ease-of-use for all citizens, Government websites must have a navigation scheme that is used consistently across the website.

The organisation and navigation scheme of the content in the website should be either categorised by subject (topic, tasks, services, life events), by audience group, by geographic location, or by any combination of these factors. Web information managers should analyse the wants and needs of citizens and other intended target groups when organizing the content of Government websites.


It must be possible for a visitor to reach the Homepage from any other page in the website.


Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages MUST occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user. (Ref. WCAG 3.2.3)


Navigation items of the same type should look and behave the same way. For example, if a set of pages on one topic has subtopic links in the left navigation bar, pages on other topics should also have subtopic links in the left navigation bar that look and behave identically.


Links to under construction pages MUST be avoided as far as possible.


Each page MUST be a standalone entity in terms of ownership, navigation and context of content.


List of all levels between the homepage and current page should be provided on each page (as breadcrumbs).


Navigation to external websites should be enabled in such a manner that the external website opens in a small sized browser window. This is to ensure that the context remains on the screen for the visitor.


Web pages and applications often have content that is repeated on other pages or screens (for example navigation links, heading graphics, banner frames etc). A sighted user can ignore the repeated material by focusing on the main content area but it is not possible for a person using a screen reader as the content is read sequentially. Therefore Web pages MUST provide a mechanism to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages. This may be done by providing a link at the top of each page that goes to the main content area. (Ref. WCAG 2.4.1)